have a DNA signature for the Norville/Nortons. This
families of CT, NY, KY as well as England.
How DNA can help sort out your family history.
If you have questions ask me.
What will this test show?
As more and more tests come in, you learn more about your line and eventually we extend your research. This has happened many times now. So if you are blocked in your research, you should consider a DNA test. It's a great investment because it continues to provide new info year after year.
These DNA tests don't reveal genetic defects, they only look at a certain set of markers passed father to son. In any event we do not reveal who has been tested unless requested.
Then what do I do?
What testing agency do you use?
One of the best reasons for using FTdna is their tools for analying the results. None of the other labs have the range of tools that FTdna provides.
A final reason for using FTdna is that they are the largest DNA lab devoted to Family History DNA. They are the lab National Geographic is using for their 100,000 person world wide DNA project. Access to this database and FTdna makes them a natural. I've been the co-ordinator for the Norton DNA Project for 6 years and still feel that FTdna is the best choice.
It is necessary to have at least two participants and preferably three, from each documented and verified line in order to prove a group.
The Y-chromosome signatures change very slowly over time and the pattern is usually stable over hundreds of years. It is not expected to change more than once every 500 years, but for some unknown and unexpected reason, a mutation can occur without notice in any generation. Male relatives who have an uninterrupted male-male link between them will share the same, or very similar Y-chromosome signatures.
The Y-line is particularly useful when a connection between different branches of a family, perhaps with the same surname, is suspected but cannot be proven from written records. Using the Y-line, by comparing the Y-chromosome signatures, provides the answer.
A generation for genealogical purposes is usually considered to be 30 years, whereas a generation for DNA purposes is usually considered to be about 20 years.
There are some reasons that can cause a Y-line to be a non-match with a participants' previous genealogical paper research and/or family tradition. These can include incorrect paper genealogy research; adoption; rape; or female infidelity.
Family Tree DNA currently analyzes 12 different genetic sites to construct a Y-chromosome signature. Family Tree DNA is associated with Dr. Michael Hammer of the University of Arizona for the Y-chromosome DNA testing. He is a highly respected geneticist who has done extensive research on the Y-chromosome Kohanim Project regarding Jewish priests, and continues to actively pursue surname research. Dr. Hammer and Family Tree DNA are now testing with 25 DNA markers.
Dr. Hammer uses the published six markers in the public domain. They are noted under their respective locus number and are designated by "DYS" followed by its number designation on the Y-chromosome. The loci with a "DYS" followed by an asterisk (*) are unpublished DYS markers and are noted by "scores" set up by Dr. Hammer. When Dr. Hammer releases these loci markers into the public domain, which will be in the very near future, the scores for the unpublished loci will be updated on this site to reflect their true number of repeats. Locus #3, reported by Dr. Hammer as DYS 394, is more commonly called DYS 19.
Dr. Michael Hammer, Ph.D., Geneticist, is an associate research scientist in the Division of Biotechnolgy at the University of Arizona with joint appointments in the Anthropolgy Department and the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Since 1991, he has been Director of the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics and Evolution (LMSE), a molecular biology core facility that provides training and other DNA services at the University of Arizona. He recieved his Ph.D. in Genetcis at the University of California at Berkely in 1984. He then spent six years as a post-doctoral fellow, first at Princeton University and then at Harvard Univeristy where he began studies to develop the non-recombining portion of the human Y chromosome (NRY) as a genealogical tool. In the last several years, his research group and collaborators have published a series of articles reporting results of studies of NRY variation in human populations. These studies have demonstrated the utility of different classes of Y chromosome markers for both long-term eveolutionary studies and studies of closely related human populations. Dr. Hammer was one of the co-authors of the first paper showing that present-day Kohanim are descended from a single male ancestor (possibly the Biblical figure, Aaron). His current research focuses on the origin of Jewish communities and their migrations during and after the Diaspora.
Alleles--One of the different forms of a gene of DNA sequence that can exist at a single locus. Alternatively, one of several alternate forms of a gene occupying a particular location on a chromosome.
Chromosome--Is composed of DNA, which itself is composed of four (4) nucleotides: A (adenine); T (thymine); C (cytosine); and G (guanine); Chromosome = thread-shaped structure occurring in cell nucleus, which transmits hereditary characteristics.
DYS--D = DNA: Y = Chromosome; S = (STR) Single Tandem Repeats; The DYS numbering scheme (e.g. DYS388, DYS 390) for the Y-STR haplotype loci is controlled and administered by an international standards body called HUGO, Human Gene Nomenclature Committee based at the University College, London.
These results compare individuals to see how closely or distantly they may have shared a common ancestor. The estimated rate of mutational change is estimated to be approximately one change per 500 generations for these loci (the locations on the Y chromosome). Since our test uses 12 different loci, it is reasonable to expect a change to occur every 40 or so generations; however, these changes can take place at any time.
Gene--The fundamental and functional unit of heredity.
Haplotype--Refers to a single or unique set of chromosomes. A set of closely linked alleles (genes or DNA polymorphisms) inherited as a unit. Different combinations of polymorphisms are known as haplotypes.
Haplogroup--Haplogroups are groupings of individuals with the same genetic characteristic such as restriction enzyme recognition sites or deletions at the same location on the DNA.
Kohanim Project--See the website located at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/israel/familycohanim.html. Also as well, see Dr. Michael Hammer above.
Loci--The position that a given gene occupies on a chromosome. (Plural)
Locus--A specific location on a chromosome. (Single)
MH--Modal Haplotype = Any person who matches exactly the alleles found to be most common among the descendants of a person. A person who matches 11 alleles whiile being only one off in only one (1) loci, will be considered to be in the haplogroup, rather than in the family haplotype.
MLE--The Most Likely Estimate of when the MRCA between two people lived.
Modal--The value at which an absolute or maximum occurs in the frequency distribution of the variant.
MRCA--The Most Recent Common Ancestor between two people.
Mutation--Small changes during the DNA copying process during transfer from father to son.
STR--Short Tandem Repeats = A VNTR (see below) in which the repeated sequence is from one (1) to five (5) base pairs.
Y-chromosome--is passed down from generation to generation only through the male line; from father to son, father to son, etc.
Tandem Repeats. A defined region of DNA containing multiple copies of
short sequences of bases, which are repeated a number of times, the number
of repeats varying among individuals in the population.